Andropogon muricatus, also known as Usheer, has been used to treat chronic head ache, debility and asthma.The useful part of this drug is its moola (roots) are bitter, sweet refrigerant, aromatic, digestive, antiemetic, constipating and antispasmodic. They are also useful in vitiated condition of Pitha and vata, burning sensation, ulcers, skin diseases, nausea, vomiting, hiccough, asthma etc.Plant pacifies hyperdipsia, ulcer, skin diseases, vomiting nausea, flatulence, dyspepsia, colic, cough, fever, low back pain, headache and general debility.

Nelumbium speciosum is a large aquatic plant with slender, elongate, branched and creeping rhizomes. From the nodes, roots and leaves arise. Leaves are peltate, 60-90 cm in diameter, petioles very long, smooth or with small prickles, much raised out of water. Flowers are solitary, large, fragrant, white or rosy with a centrally located yellow sponchy torus in which carpels are sunken; fruits are ovoid, nut like achenes. Plant pacifies vitiated pitta, urinary and cardiac system disorders, hyperdipsia, diarrhea, and vomiting, burning sensation on the body, nervous exhaustions, skin diseases, urinary retention and general debility.

Useful part: Whole plant.

Cuminum sativus is a small, slender annual herb, with a much-branched angular or striated stem, bearing 2 or 3 partite linear leaves, bluish green in color and having sheathing bases. The chief constituent of the volatile oil is cumaldehyde. In indigenous medicine, cumin seeds have long been considered stimulant and carminative. They are stomachic, astringent and useful in diarrhea and dyspepsia; improves appetite and taste. They are now chiefly used in Veterinary medicine. The seeds showed antifertility and abortifacient activity in female rats. They have been credited with aphrodisiac properties.

Zingiber officinale is an herbaceous, perennial herb, with aromatic rhizomes. Its principal constituents are Zingiberene (a- and b-zingiberene), and zingiberol. Ginger is valued in medicine as a carminative and stimulant to the gastro-intestinal tract. It is much in vogue as a household remedy for indigestion, relieves dyspepsia, flatulence and colic. Ginger is reported to contain an anti-histaminic factor. It is included among anti-depressants and it forms an ingredient of some anti-narcotic preparations. It is soothing for cough, colds, flu and other respiratory problems.

Mesua ferrea is a medium-sized to large evergreen tree with solitary flower and numerous stamens. Its principal constituent is the volatile oil from the flowers shows antibacterial, antifungal and antihelmintic activities. It exhibits significant anti-inflammatory and styptic activity.

Caryophyllus aromaticus is a pyramidal or conical evergreen tree with gland dotted leaves cultivated mainly for the flower buds (cloves).The clove bud oil contains free eugenol, eugenol acetate, Gallic acid and caryophyllene as its main constituents that are good antioxidants. The cloves are aromatic, stimulant and carminative. They are used in various forms of gastric irritation and dyspepsia. They are administered to relieve nausea and vomiting, to correct flatulence and to excite languid digestion. The oil is used as a local analgesic for hypersensitive dentine and carious cavities; a mixture of oil and zinc calx is used as a temporary filling for tooth-cavities. Used externally, the oil is rubefacient and counterirritant; internally, it is carminative and antispasmodic. Caryophyllus aromaticus is useful in coughs and other respiratory disorders. It improves the breath and is a popular remedy for sore throat, headaches and coryza.

Piper cubeba (Kankola ) consists of mature, dried fruits of Piper cubeba (Fam. Piperaceae); woodly, climbing, perennial with dioeceous flowers in spike, cultivated to a small extent in India, especially in the Karnataka state; fruits collected when mature but still unripe and carefully dried. Large trees with gray, scaly, fibrous bark. Leaves 3-foliolate; petiole angular or winged; leaflets sub sessile, elliptic-lanceolate. Flowers bluish-white, in terminal paniculate cymes. Drupe globose.Bangalore, Chikmagalur, Coorg, Hassan, Kolar, Mysore, North Koran, Shimoga, South Koran, Tumkur. South India, Sri Lanka Aruci; Mukharoga; Mutrakrcchra; Sula. Fruits-stomatitis, cardiac diseases, anorexia, blindness, leprosy, worm infestation, digestive, carminative.

Nardostachys jatamansi is an erect and perennial herb. Its principal constituents are jatamansone, jatamanshic acid and virolin. It has analgesic and stimulant properties. The oil possesses antiarrhythmic and hypotensive activity. It promotes hair growth and imparts a black color to the hair. Jatamansone, an active principle of N. jatamansi, brings forth a significant reduction in hyperactivity, restlessness and aggressiveness in hyperactive children.

Bombax ceiba is a lofty, deciduous tree with horizontally, spreading branches. The bark, on analysis, possesses tannins and non-tannins. It also contains lupeol, ß-sitosterol and its D-glycosides. The bark is given as a demulcent, emetic and tonic. Externally, it is used as a styptic, and also for fomenting wounds. The gum is credited with astringent, tonic, and demulcent properties and is used for dysentery, hemoptysis in pulmonary tuberculosis, influenza and menorrhagia.

Shuddha Gairika bhasma chemically Hematite Calx is an astringent, hematinic, which is useful for diarrhea.

Yashad bhasma / Jasad bhasma contains Zinc Calx is specially processed zinc. Zinc plays a significant role in protein synthesis, in cell division and in wound healing. It has shown beneficial effects in acne and is known to have antiseptic and astringent properties. Animals fed zinc deficient diets show anorexia, weight loss, growth retardation, various skin dystrophies and impaired glucose metabolism. These have also been observed in man. With age the zinc content of the abdominal aorta decreases. It is administered in sprue, diabetes, leucorrhea and hyperhydrosis.

Vang bhasma chemically known as Tin Calx is prepared from tin metal and has a wide range of therapeutic uses with special reference to the diseases of the genito-urinary tract. It is effective against a wide range of organisms in the urinary tract and thus, is of great clinical usefulness and efficacy in urinary tract infections of various origins. It improves digestion, is useful in wasting diseases and cures all ‘pramehas’ (A prameha is a urinary tract disease characterized by polyurea and turbid urine).

Muktashukti bhasma (MSB), an Ayurvedic compound, consisting of pearl, Aloe Vera and vinegar, inhibited acute and sub acute inflammation in albino rats as induced by sub planter injection of carrageenan, histamine, 5-HT, nystatin and subcutaneous implant of cotton pellets. In all the test procedures the anti-inflammatory response of 1000 mg/kg MSB was comparable to the response observed with 300 mg/kg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Oral premedication with MSB delayed castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats, indicating its prostaglandin inhibitory activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of the compound is attributed to its ability to cause inhibition of prostaglandins, histamine and 5-HT and also by stabilization of the lysosomal membranes. The anti-inflammatory activity of MSB seems one third to half as potent as ASA.

Mandur bhasma contains Ferric Oxide Calx is prepared by purifying and calcinating iron rust. Mandura is especially useful in anemia, amenorrhea, dysmenorrheal, menorrhagia, chlorosis, hepatic and splenic disorders. It is also used in diarrhea, chronic bowel complaints, dyspepsia, intestinal worms, nervous diseases, neuralgia of the 5th nerve due to debility, kidney diseases, albuminuria, etc. It is a powerful hematinic and tonic and is valuable in the treatment of hemolytic jaundice and microcytic anemia.

Kaseesam (Ferri Sulphas) is stringent, and acid. It is heating. It checks Vaata and Kapha. It is useful in the treatment of Visha, diseases of the eye, Leucoderma, Kushta and wounds

Action: – Astringent haematinic.

Uses: – It is considered in high esteem as a haematinic in cases of anemia and bloodlessness. It is also given as a substitute for other preparations of iron. For its astringent properties it is given in combination with other drugs in cases of dysentery, diarrhea and hemorrhage. In certain cases of jaundice and anemia it is considered as a specific. It improves the colour and vigor of the body by enrichening the blood.

Abhrak bhasma contains Biotite Calx is prepared by treating biotite (mica) with the juices of a number of reconstituent plants that make it a powerful cellular regenerator. It is a nervine tonic and is also widely used in respiratory tract infections, and anemia. It contains iron, magnesium, potassium, calcium and aluminum in traces.

Saraca asoca is a small evergreen tree.Its principal constituents are a steroid component and a calcium salt. The bark of Saraca indica contains the estrogenic compound ketosterol. The bark has a stimulating effect on the endometrium and ovarian tissue, is useful in menorrhagia due to uterine fibroids, in leucorrhea and in internal bleeding, where ergot is indicated. It is well established for its effectiveness in menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea. It also has a stimulatory effect on the ovarian tissue and may produce an estrogen-like effect that enhances the repair of the endometrium and stops bleeding.

Symplocos racemosa is an evergreen tree or shrub; with white flowers turning yellow and purplish black drupes.Its principal constituents are the three alkaloids, viz. loturine, loturidine and colloturine. The astringent bark is given for the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and liver complaints. It is recommended in the treatment of menorrhagia and other uterine disorders. The stem bark is having anti-inflammatory property as well as hypothermic properties.

Bryonopsis laciniosa is an herb common in India It is found in many parts of the world, like USA. This is counted as an invasive plant. This plant is a member of Cucurbitaceae plant family. This is an herbaceous, slender, extensive, monoecious climber. The leaves are palmately 3-7 lobed, membranous, and glabrous. The flowers are creamy white, in axillary fascicles. The berries are nearly sphericle and smooth. The seeds are obviate, creamy-white or pale yellow, minutely scorbiculate. The flowering season is August to December. In Ayurveda the leaves and the seeds are used for treatment of fevers with flatulence and as tonic, the plant is also useful in inflammation.

Terminalia chebula is a tree with a rounded crown and spreading branches. Its principal constituents are chebulagic, chebulinic acid and corilagin. Its fruits have laxative, stomachic, tonic and alterative properties. It is also known as an adaptogen, and hepatoprotective drug. It acts as a gentle laxative and helps in smooth evacuation. It is an effective purgative and helps in removing toxins and fats from the body, resulting in their reduced absorption.

Adhatoda zeylanica is an evergreen, gregarious, stiff perennial shrub. Its principal constituents are the several alkaloids which are present in the drug and its chief principal is a quinazoline alkaloid, vasicine. The leaves are rich in Vitamin C and carotene and yield an essential oil. The shrub is the source of the drug, vasaka, well known in indigenous systems of medicine for its beneficial effects, particularly in bronchitis. The leaves, flowers, fruits and roots are extensively used for treating cold, cough, whooping-cough, chronic bronchitis and asthma. It acts as a sedative-expectorant, antispasmodic and antihelmintic. The leaf-juice is stated to cure diarrhea, dysentery and glandular tumor, and, is given as an emmenagogue. The powder is reported to be used as a poultice on rheumatic joints, as a counter-irritant on inflammatory swellings, on fresh wounds, urticaria and in neuralgia. It has strong coagulant action which is very useful to minimize blood loss and also possesses uterine stimulant activity and acts as uterotonic. It is also useful in postpartum hemorrhage.

Ficus bengalensis is a very large tree, with spreading branches. The stem bark contains ß-sitosterol, a-D-glucose and meso- inositol. The leaves contain petunidin di-glycoside and quercentin 3-galactoside. The fruits contain cyanidin rhamnoglycoside and polysaccharides. Various parts of the plant are considered medicinal. The milky juice is externally applied for pains and bruises and as an anodyne in rheumatism and lumbago. It is also used as a remedy for toothache. The leaves are heated and applied as poultice to abscesses. The bark is tonic, astringent and cooling. The seeds are also considered as cooling and tonic.

Cedrus deodara is a large evergreen tree. The bark is thick, furrowed vertically and cracked transversely. Plant pacifies vitiated vata, kapha, pain, arthritis, ear ache, inflammation, headache, epilepsy, insomnia, cough, bronchitis, hiccough, diabetes, urinary tract infections, calculi, skin diseases and cardiac disorders.

Useful parts: Leaves, Heartwood, Oil.

Hygrophilia auriculata is a robust, erect, annual herb, with sub-quadrangular stem, thickened at nodes and yellow spines in leaf axis. It is used in disorders of the genitourinary system and is helpful in the cases of impotence, spermatorrhea and seminal debilities.

Asparagus racemosus – a much-branched, spinous under-shrub, with tuberous, short rootstock bearing numerous fusiform, succulent, tuberous roots. The plant contains triterpene saponins – Shatavarin I – IV, which are phytoestrogen compounds.The plant, is used as a demulcent, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and galactagogue. The root extracts exhibit antiallergic activity. Along with the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, they are given to diabetic patients.

Emblica officinalis is a deciduous tree with exfoliating bark. Its fruit contains the highest amount of vitamin C in natural form and cytokine-like substances identified as zeatin, z.riboside, and z.nucleotide. Its fruit is acrid, cooling, refrigerant, diuretic, laxative and used in the preparation of hair dyes. A fixed oil extracted from the fruits is reported to have the property of promoting hair growth. The dried fruit is useful in hemorrhage, diarrhea and dysentery. It has anabolic, antibacterial, expectorant, cardio tonic, antipyretic, ant oxidative, antiviral, and anti-emetic and resistance building properties and used in the treatment of leucorrhea and arteriosclerosis. It is antibacterial and its astringent properties prevent infection and help in the healing of ulcers. It is used as a laxative to relieve constipation in piles. It has anti-inflammatory activity and is used for its activity against human pathogenic Epidermophyton, Trichophyton, Absidia ramosa and Microsporon gypsum. It has proven effective in a number of dermal diseases.


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